Statistical abstract of the United States:
The Sociological Perspective This section of the course introduces students to the discipline of sociology, focusing on its history, the questions and scientific methods that characterize it as a field, and what distinguishes it from other social 3 important factors in sociology disciplines.
Included in this definition is the ongoing evolution of sociology as a discipline that is both basic science and applied science. Important in this perspective are the elements of sociological practice and possible careers in sociology at all levels of academic preparation.
The first two units of the course introduce students to the dynamic interplay between theory and the logic of the scientific method in sociology. Learners will become aware of the core theoretical perspectives and the process of developing theory. They will recognize that sociology is a science: The history of sociology is grounded in social and ideological changes in Western Europe and America, specifically the Enlightenment and American pragmatism.
Contributions of classical sociological theorists such as Durkheim, Marx, and Weber are examined in combination with major scholars prominent in the emergence of American sociology. Sociological theory attempts to explain in a coherent manner the varieties of societal organization and of social behaviors.
Students should understand that though it is posed at an abstract level, sociological theory is continually being refined as it is made to confront empirical reality. Students should become familiar with the major sociological approaches --functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism, exchange theory, and feminist theory -- to the explanation of social life.
With functionalism Durkheim, Parsonsstudents should be aware of the analogy of society to an organism, the assumption of consensus that underlies social life, and ways that society organizes itself to sanction deviance so that it may return to equilibrium. Students should also be aware of the criticisms of functionalism regarding its difficulty in dealing with social change.
Conflict theory Marx, Weber introduces students to the notion that societal stability may come from stable power relations rather than from an underlying consensus.
Students should become aware of the multiplicity of conflicting interests in society as well as how changes in resources may, among other factors, lead to major social change. The difficulty of conflict theory in predicting precisely where the fissures in a given society are and when they may erupt is a recurring criticism.
An inductive, qualitative approach to the understanding of individual and group interaction in a variety of contexts is the common orientation of symbolic interactionists.
Exchange theory Blau, Homans, Coleman brings issues of rational choice to the fore. Students should understand the ways in which relationships of trust and power may develop as people pursue their self-interest.
The degree to which exchange theory is relevant largely to interactions among individuals rather than groups and is contextually based in the larger culture should be understood.
Feminist theory Gilman, Rossi, Millett focuses on the ways that gender systems structure our daily interactions as well as larger systems of power in society. Many feminist theorists focus not only on how patriarchal societies are set up in ways that disadvantage women but on how the effects of patriarchy articulate with other systems of domination, such as class- and race-based domination.
From theories of sexual politics to sociobiology to economic and materialist approaches, feminist theory provides a variety of perspectives on relations of power in society. Feminist theories differ radically in how they incorporate other approaches to the study of social life.
Research Methods Learners will connect the use and construction of theory with the application of diverse research methods to answer sociological questions. Over the years, philosophers, religious leaders, journalists, and many others have speculated about human society.
Students will learn how sociology differs from these other enterprises because sociology applies relevant theories and scientific methods to the study of society. The methods are not pre-determined; they depend upon the question being asked. Sometimes the endeavor is exploratory; sometimes it is to test a specific theoretical proposition; it is always systematic.
Students will learn how the theory-method process develops and uses a strategy that requires stating a clear question or hypothesis, developing data to address the question or test the hypothesis, and then judging whether the question is answered or the hypothesis is supported.
They will learn further that a scientific approach requires that the methods be stated clearly so that other sociologists might repeat the study to confirm the results. Coverage includes both qualitative and quantitative research, basic and applied research contexts as well as review of different methodologies, including survey research, interviewing, participant observation, content analysis, historical and comparative research.
Basic concepts of statistical analysis are also included, along with discussion of probability and measurement.Sociology Sociology is the study of society. It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity.
For many sociologists the goal is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social. Free Sociology Books is a publisher of free Sociology Textbooks to help studetns fight the rising cost of College textbooks. Three (3) factors combined to lead to the development of sociology. 1. The social upheaval in Europe-In the middle of the 19th century Europe was in the middle of the Industrial Revolution.
Impression management is a conscious or subconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event.
They do so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction. . SPECIMEN MATERIAL. AS SOCIOLOGY (/2) Paper 2 Research Methods and Topics in Sociology.
Specimen Morning Time allowed: 1 hour 30 minutes. A Sociology of Food and Nutrition: The Social Appetite, 3rd Edition introduces readers to the field of food sociology, by comprehensively examining the social context of food and nutrition.
Leading Australian and international authors in the field provide a contemporary analysis of the social factors that underlie food choice, exploring the socio-cultural, political, economic and philosophical.