Tom Head has written more than 25 books including "Civil Liberties: A Beginner's Guide.
See Article History Alternative Title: One group was founded immediately after the Civil War and lasted until the s; the other began in and has continued to the present. The organization quickly became a vehicle for Southern white underground resistance to Radical Reconstruction.
Klan members sought the restoration of white supremacy through intimidation and violence aimed at the newly enfranchised black freedmen. A similar organization, the Knights of the White Camelia, began in Louisiana in Library of Congress, Washington, D.
The group was presided over by a grand wizard Confederate cavalry general Nathan Bedford Forrest is believed to have been the first grand wizard and a descending hierarchy of grand dragons, grand titans, and grand cyclopses.
Dressed in robes and sheets designed to frighten superstitious blacks and to prevent identification by the occupying federal troops, Klansmen whipped and killed freedmen and their white supporters in nighttime raids. The 19th-century Klan reached its peak between and A potent force, it was largely responsible for the restoration of white rule in North CarolinaTennessee, and Georgia.
Local branches remained active for a time, however, prompting Congress to pass the Force Act in and the Ku Klux Act in These bills authorized the president to suspend the writ of habeas corpussuppress disturbances by force, and impose heavy penalties upon terrorist organizations.
Grant was lax in utilizing this authority, although he did send federal troops to some areas, suspend habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties, and appoint commissioners who arrested hundreds of Southerners for conspiracy. In United States v.
Harris inthe Supreme Court declared the Ku Klux Act unconstitutional, but by that time the Klan had practically disappeared. It disappeared because its original objective—the restoration of white supremacy throughout the South—had been largely achieved during the s.
The need for a secret antiblack organization diminished accordingly. The 20th-century Klan had its roots more directly in the American nativist tradition. It was organized in near AtlantaGeorgia, by Col. William J. The new organization remained small until Edward Y.
Clarke and Elizabeth Tyler brought to it their talents as publicity agents and fund raisers. The revived Klan was fueled partly by patriotism and partly by a romantic nostalgia for the old South, but, more importantly, it expressed the defensive reaction of white Protestants in small-town America who felt threatened by the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and by the large-scale immigration of the previous decades that had changed the ethnic character of American society.
Griffith Corporation This second Klan peaked in the s, when its membership exceeded 4, nationally, and profits rolled in from the sale of its memberships, regalia, costumes, publications, and rituals. A burning cross became the symbol of the new organization, and white-robed Klansmen participated in marches, parades, and nighttime cross burnings all over the country.University of Wisconsin-Madison will not remove from campus buildings the names of well-known student leaders who also were members of a campus Ku Klux Klan society in the early s, the university announced Thursday.
The Ku Klux Klan’s failure to defeat the black civil rights moment is well documented, but the group’s lesser-known legacy may be its lasting impact on the U.S. political system, according to a new study.
Mapping the Klan is a rough timeline of the rise of the second Ku Klux Klan. Each red dot shows a local unit or 'Klavern.' The official numbers for each Klavern indicate a basic chronology for the chartering of the Klaverns, and they also reveal patterns of Klan organizing.
Start studying The Ku Klux Klan: A Secret History. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The Ku Klux Klan. Burning crosses.
Men marching through the streets with white hoods covering their faces. These were the sights of the Ku Klux Klan (or KKK) in the s and s. In this lesson, we will learn about how the KKK grew rapidly in the years after as a response to the Civil Rights Movement. One of the first, and largest, of these was the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, which organized in Atlanta, Georgia, in as a response to the Supreme Court decision Brown v.