A-Z Bibliography In the original online version of this bibliography, all the book and periodical titles were italicized.
For centuries, Russia has straddled both Europe and Asia, two continents that are divided by the Ural Mountains.
In a sense, there are two Russian homelands. One is the present-day state of Russia, which coincides with territory inhabited by ethnic Russians. Americans who identify their heritage as Russian include first-generation immigrants and their descendants who came from Russia within its present-day border; people from the Baltic countries, Belarus, and Ukraine who have identified themselves as Russians; East Slavs from the former Austro-Hungarian Empire who have identified themselves as Russians once in the United States; and Jews from the Western regions of the former Russian Empire and the Soviet Union who, aside from their religious background, identify themselves as Russians.
Much of European Russia west of the Urals was part of a medieval state known as Kievan Rus', which existed from the late ninth century to the thirteenth century. During the Kievan period, Orthodox Christianity reached Russia and that religion remained intimately connected with whatever state or culture developed on Russian territory until the twentieth century.
It was in a northern part of Kievan Rus', the Duchy of Muscovy, that the birth of a specifically Russian state can be found. The state-building process began in the late thirteenth century, when the Duchy of Muscovy began to consolidate its power and expand its territory.
The expansion proved to be phenomenal. By the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the growing state included lands along the Baltic Sea, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, and large parts of Poland.
The country's borders also moved beyond the Ural Mountains into Siberia, a vast land whose annexation together with Central Asia the Caucasus region were completed in the nineteenth century. As the country grew, it also changed its name from the Duchy to the Tsardom of Muscovy and in it became the Russian Empire.
The grand dukes became the tsars of Muscovy, who in turn became emperors of the Russian Empire. Although the rulers of the empire were formally called emperors imperatorthey were still popularly referred to as tsars or tsarinas.
In Novembera second revolution took place, led by the Bolsheviks and headed by a revolutionary named Vladimir Lenin. The Bolshevik Revolution was opposed by a significant portion of the population, and the result was a Civil War that began in and lasted until early In the end, the Bolsheviks were victorious, and in late they created a new state, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union consisted of several national republics, the largest of which was called Russia. Beyond the Russian republic many inhabitants, especially in the western regions of the Soviet Union, continued to identify themselves as Russians.
The new Soviet state proclaimed the establishment of Communism worldwide as its goal. It intended to achieve that goal by promoting Bolshevik-style revolutions abroad. Since many countries feared such revolutions, they refused to recognize Bolshevik rule.
Thus, the Soviet Union was isolated from the rest of the world community for nearly 20 years. Following the Allied victory, the Soviets emerged alongside the United States as one of the two most powerful countries in the world.
For nearly the next half-century, the world was divided between two camps: By the s, the centralized economic and political system of the Soviet Union was unable to function effectively.
Ina new communist leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, tried desperately to reform the system but failed.A Contribution to the Analysis of Energy Security 61 Carla Patricio Fernandes behind the concerns shared by producing countries, such as “stable demand”, “reasonable to accept that, all individual efforts combined, the end result is a collective apparatus with.
The logic behind the reconstruction of Paris bears a resemblance to the logic behind the transformation of old-growth forests into scientific forests designed for unitary fiscal management.
If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Scott, John – Behind the Urals: An American Worker in Russia’s City of Steel () Category: history, Soviet Union, Stalin; Rating: 5/5 Fear and Fervor under Stalinist Industrialization. The Great Depression of the ’s, with its iconic images of well-dressed bourgeoisie in soup lines and gaunt figures with hopeless eyes from the Dust Bowl, challenged the prior American consensus that.
This book delivers on two analytical levels. First, it is a broad study of Sweden as an international actor, an actor that at least for a brief period tried to play a different .
Knights Templar. Footage has emerged of an intriguing network of caves found through a rabbit hole that many believe were built by the Knights Templar order years ago. The sanctuary in Shropshire is located under an unassuming set of what appear to be large .