Architecture As many people know, the architects of many buildings have used a multitude of techniques and methods from ancient architecture to build newer buildings. For example, the Capitol Building uses Greek and Roman architecture in its columns, while the Washington Monument is in the style of an Egyptian Obelisk.
Outstanding Universal Value Brief synthesis The Acropolis of Athens is the most striking and complete ancient Greek monumental complex still existing in our times. It is situated on a hill of average height m that rises in the basin of Athens.
Its overall dimensions are approximately by m. The hill is rocky and steep on all sides except for the western side, and has an extensive, nearly flat top. Strong fortification walls have surrounded the summit of the Acropolis for more than 3, years.
The first fortification wall was An analysis of the greek architecture and the parthenon during the 13th century BC, and surrounded the residence of the local Mycenaean ruler.
The sanctuary reached its peak in the archaic period mid-6th century to early 5th century BC. In the 5th century BC, the Athenians, empowered from their victory over the Persians, carried out an ambitious building programme under the leadership of the great statesman Perikles, comprising a large number of monuments including the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, the Propylaia and the temple of Athena Nike.
The monuments were developed by an exceptional group of architects such as Iktinos, Kallikrates, Mnesikles and sculptors such as Pheidias, Alkamenes, Agorakritoswho transformed the rocky hill into a unique complex, which heralded the emergence of classical Greek thought and art.
On this hill were born Democracy, Philosophy, Theatre, Freedom of Expression and Speech, which provide to this day the intellectual and spiritual foundation for the contemporary world and its values.
The Athenian Acropolis is the supreme expression of the adaptation of architecture to a natural site.
This grand composition of perfectly balanced massive structures creates a monumental landscape of unique beauty, consisting of a complete series of architectural masterpieces of the 5th century BC: The monuments of the Athenian Acropolis have exerted an exceptional influence, not only in Greco-Roman antiquity, during which they were considered exemplary models, but also in contemporary times.
Throughout the world, Neo-Classical monuments have been inspired by all the Acropolis monuments. From myth to institutionalized cult, the Athenian Acropolis, by its precision and diversity, bears a unique testimony to the religions of ancient Greece.
It is the sacred temple from which sprung fundamental legends about the city. Beginning in the 6th century BC, myths and beliefs gave rise to temples, altars and votives corresponding to an extreme diversity of cults, which have brought us the Athenian religion in all its richness and complexity.
Athena was venerated as the goddess of the city Athena Polias ; as the goddess of war Athena Promachos ; as the goddess of victory Athena Nike ; as the protective goddess of crafts Athena Erganeetc. Most of her identities are glorified at the main temple dedicated to her, the Parthenon, the temple of the patron-goddess.
The Athenian Acropolis is an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble illustrating significant historical phases since the 16th century BC. Firstly, it was the Mycenaean Acropolis Late Helladic civilization, BC which included the royal residence and was protected by the characteristic Mycenaean fortification.
The monuments of the Acropolis are distinctly unique structures that evoke the ideals of the Classical 5th century BC and represent the apex of ancient Greek architectural development.
The Acropolis is directly and tangibly associated with events and ideas that have never faded over the course of history. Its monuments are still living testimonies of the achievements of Classical Greek politicians e.
Themistokles, Perikles who lead the city to the establishment of Democracy; the thought of Athenian philosophers e. Socrates, Plato, Demosthenes ;and the works of architects e. Iktinos, Kallikrates, Mnesikles and artists e. These monuments are the testimony of a precious part of the cultural heritage of humanity.
The perfection of ancient building techniques ensured the resistance of the monuments to natural forces through time. Despite the unavoidable damage of time, they still display their beauty and convey their inestimable artistic and historic value, preserving all the features that directly and tangibly associate them with the events and ideas of Democracy and Philosophy.
Inevitably, the vicissitudes of history between the 5th century BC and our days have caused extensive damage that is being successfully addressed with the ongoing restoration and conservation works, which increase both the stability and the legibility of the monuments.
Authenticity The authenticity of the Acropolis hill, crowned with the masterpieces of Greek Classical art and architecture, is well preserved. In order to maintain the authenticity and structural integrity of the monuments, an integrated intervention begun in and continues today.
The works are based on clear theoretical and scholarly foundations, and follow the principles of the Venice Charter. The interventions are limited to the absolutely necessary and respect the ancient structural system, while remaining consistent with the principle of reversibility.
Moreover, the techniques and the tools used for the restoration works are similar to those of the ancient craftspeople, while the white marble used for completing the eroded architectural elements is quarried from the same mountain as in antiquity Mt.
Therefore, the restorations are fully compatible with the original parts of the monuments. Protection and management requirements The Acropolis has been operating as an archaeological site sinceshortly after the establishment of the modern Greek State. Moreover, the Ministry of Culture, Education and Religious Affairs implements the legislative decrees concerning the safeguarding of the property and its peripheral zone which corresponds to the boundaries of the ancient city of Athens and its surroundings and ensures the visual integrity of the site.
Especially for the restoration, protection and monitoring of the property, an advisory body, the Committee for the Restoration and Conservation of the Acropolis Monuments, was founded in and is responsible for planning, directing and supervising the interventions.
The extensive research programme and the methodology implemented are innovative in this field and act as a reference point for other restoration projects.In the end, this chapter offers a thorough The Parthenon as seen from the phenomenological examination of the event and delivers an Propylae.
Sketch by Jeanneret () array of new insights on the psychological, physical, and spiritual dimensions of the architectural numinous.
Image Analysis & Primary Source Document Analysis Directions: * Students will write down as many observations as they can from the images shown from the Parthenon and the Pantheon. (Use glossary of terms for specific elements) * Be sure students define the terms so they understand their meaning, function, and importance.
Feb 25, · The Parthenon was the jewel of Greek religion. Like an ageless celestial mirror, it also reflected the power, patriotism, democracy and artistic and technical achievements of .
The Acropolis of Athens is the most striking and complete ancient Greek monumental complex still existing in our times. It is situated on a hill of average height (m) that rises in the basin of Athens. The Parthenon is an ancient Greek temple located in Athens, kaja-net.com was or iginally dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena.
A replicaof the Parthenon was built in Nashville, Tennessee in The Parthenon is widely considered to be the apotheosis of classical architecture, regarded as an enduring symbol of Greek culture, Athenian democracy and Western civilization as a whole.
It is constructed in the traditional Doric order of temple design, representing logic, morality, restraint and control.