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For a discussion of… Origins During the 19th century, major challenges to traditional Christian teachings arose on several fronts.
Geologic discoveries revealed Earth to be far older than the few thousand years suggested by a literal reading of the biblical book of Genesis and the various scriptural genealogies. The work of Charles Darwin —82 and his colleagues established that human beings as a species had emerged over millions of years through a process of evolutionrather than suddenly by divine fiat.
Social scientists and philosophers influenced by Herbert Spencer — advocated a parallel theory of progressive social evolution that refuted the traditional religious understanding of human sinwhich was predicated on the notion that, after the fall from grace, the human condition was corrupt beyond repair.
A more direct challenge to traditional Christianity came from scholars who adopted a critical and historical approach to studying and interpreting the Bible.
This perspective, known as modernism, treated the books of the Bible—especially the first five the Pentateuch —not as simple documents written by a single author but as complex texts constructed by multiple authors from several older sources.
Although modernism offered a solution to many problems posed by seemingly contradictory biblical passages, it also raised severe doubts about the historical accuracy of the biblical text, leading scholars to revise the traditional history of the biblical era and to reconsider the nature of biblical authority.
For a discussion of modernism in the history of Roman Catholicismsee Modernism. The issue of biblical authority was crucial to American Protestantism, which had inherited the fundamental doctrine of sola Scriptura Latin: Thus, any challenge to scriptural integrity had the potential to undermine Christianity as they understood and practiced it.
In response to this challenge, theologians at the Princeton Theological Seminary argued for the verbal word-for-word inspiration of Scripture and affirmed that the Bible was not only infallible correct when it spoke on matters of faith and morals but inerrant correct when it spoke on any matters, including history and science.
As the theologians at Princeton developed their new approach, John Nelson Darbyone of the earliest leaders of the Plymouth Brethren a British free church movement emphasizing biblical prophecy and the Second Coming of Christintroduced a very different theological perspective, called dispensationalism.
The present period, according to dispensationalism, was one of expectant waiting for the imminent return of Jesus Christ. Dispensationalists believed in an apocalyptic millennialism that foretold the Rapture the bodily rescue of the chosen by God and the subsequent cataclysmic events of the Last Days, such as the persecutions by the Antichrist and the Battle of Armageddon see also eschatology.
They believed that the next important event in human history would be the coming of Christ to justify and redeem his people and establish them in leadership over a millennial thousand-year kingdom. Brookes —97a St. Louis, Missouri, Presbyterian minister and editor of the influential millennial periodical The Truth.
Other early millennial leaders included George C. Needham —a Baptist evangelist; William J. Erdman —a Presbyterian minister noted for his skill as a biblical exegete; and William R.
Near the end of the century, the millennial movement attracted other prominent leaders, such as Adoniram J. The millenarians associated with the Niagara Conference also sponsored public conferences in major cities beginning insuch as the International Prophetic Conferences in New York City.
Chicago evangelist Dwight L. Moody —99 provided an influential platform for millennial expression in his Northfield, Massachusetts, conferences. Millennialists were also active in the late 19th-century missionary revival that was eventually institutionalized as the Student Volunteer Movement.
Doctrinal and institutional development The late 19th to the midth century During the last years of the 19th century, the millennial movement was divided over issues of prophetic interpretation, but Brookes managed to hold the dissident factions together.
Within a few years of his death, however, the Niagara Conference was abandoned.The Protestant Reformation Introduction The Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century is one of the most complex movements in European history since the fall of the Roman Empire.
The Reformation truly ends the Middle Ages and begins a new era in the history of Western Civilization. The Protestant goes directly to the Word of God for instruction, and to the throne of grace in his devotions; whilst the pious Roman Catholic consults the teaching of his church From this general principle of Evangelical freedom, and direct individual relationship of the believer to Christ, proceed the three fundamental doctrines of Protestantism .
Christianity's Dangerous Idea: The Protestant Revolution--A History from the Sixteenth Century to the Twenty-First [Alister McGrath] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A New Interpretation of Protestantism and Its Impact on the World The radical idea that individuals could interpret the Bible for themselves spawned a .
History Of The Movement. Introduction. The Pentecostal movement is by far the largest and most important religious movement to originate in the United States. These included the Protestant “Neo-Pentecostal” movement which began in in Van Nuys, California, under the ministry of Dennis Bennett, Rector of St.
Marks Episcopal. An Introduction to German Pietism provides a scholarly investigation of a movement that changed the history of Protestantism.
The Pietists can be credited with . An Introduction to German Pietism provides a scholarly investigation of a movement that changed the history of Protestantism.
The Pietists can be credited with Author: Douglas H. Shantz.