The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space. The most obvious examples include Marxism as contained in the "classic" writings of Marx and others and the social structure that exists in the U. Among the fundamental principles of the state doctrine in these countries is the assertion that the connection between the two phenomena is very simple.
The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space. The most obvious examples include Marxism as contained in the "classic" writings of Marx and others and the social structure that exists in the U.
Among the fundamental principles of the state doctrine in these countries is the assertion that the connection between the two phenomena is very simple. On the one hand, it is asserted, there is a scientific theory which proves that after achieving a definite level in the development of productive forces, mankind will pass over to a new historic formation; this theory points the way to the most rational paths for such a transition.
And on the other hand, we are assured, there is the embodiment of this scientific prognosis, its confirmation. As an example of quite a different point of view we cite H.
Wells, who visited Russia in and, though infected by the worship of socialism, fashionable then as now, nevertheless almost instinctively refused to accept Marxism, in this sense reflecting the antipathy toward all scholastic theories typical of an Englishman.
In his book Russia in the Shadows, Wells writes: The state system established as a result is therefore defined and shaped by the necessity of holding power.
Since these tasks are entirely different, the official theory and the actual implementation have nothing in common.
It would be incautious to take either of these assertions on faith. On the contrary, it would be desirable, first, to study both "socialisms" independently, without any a priori hypotheses, and only then attempt to come to conclusions about the connections that exist between them.
We shall begin with socialism understood as a doctrine, as an appeal. All such doctrines and as we shall see, there were many of them have a common core--they are based on the complete rejection of the existing social structure. They call for its destruction and paint a picture of a more just and happy society in which the solution to all the fundamental problems of the times would be found.
Furthermore, they propose concrete ways of achieving this goal.
In religious literature such a system of views is referred to as belief in the thousand-year Kingdom of God on earth--chiliasm. Borrowing this terminology, we shall designate the socialist doctrines of this type as "chiliastic socialism.
In doing so, we shall attempt to extract a picture of the future society envisaged, leaving to one side for the moment the motivation as well as the concrete means recommended for achieving the ideal.
The first example takes us to Athens in B. Here he depicts a teaching fashionable in the Athens of the time.
The plot is as follows: They use this power to introduce a series of measures, which are expounded in a dialogue between Praxagora, the leader of the women, and her husband, Blepyros.
Here are several quotations. No more the division between Rich and Poor. My initial move will be to communalize land, and money, and all other property, personal and real. A system like this requires a pretty wise father to know his own children.
But why does he need to?
Age is the new criterion: Children will henceforth trace their descent from all men who might have begot them. This leaves you just one civic function: When the shades of night draw on, slip sleekly down to dinner.
Let us attempt to specify the associations that arise by considering a second example--the classic statement of the Marxist program contained in the Communist Manifesto. Here are some quotations characterizing the future society as the authors imagine it: Abolition of private property.
Even the most radical Hare up at this infamous proposal of the Communists. On what foundation is the present  family, the bourgeois family based? On capital, on private gain. In its completely developed form, this family exists only among the bourgeoisie. But this state of things finds its complement in the practical absence of the family among the proletarians, and in public prostitution.
Is not that also social, and determined by the social conditions under which you educate? Among the first measures to be taken after the revolution, we find: In "Principles of Communism" we find: The building of large palaces in the national estates as common dwellings for the Communes, whose citizens will be busy in industry, agriculture; these structures will combine the merits of urban and rural life and avoid their defects.[The following is a transcription of Igor Shafarevich's The Socialist kaja-net.com work was originally published in Russian in France under the title Sotsializm kak iavlenie mirovoi istorii in , by YMCA Press.
An English translation was subsequently published in by Harper & Row. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin Englishmen, Frenchmen, Spaniards;: An essay in comparative psychology [Salvador de Madariaga] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying kaja-net.com: Salvador de Madariaga.
Aims & methods of a chair of Spanish studies; an inaugural lecture delivered before the University of Oxford on 15 May / By: Madariaga, Salvador de, Published: () Englishmen, . Get this from a library! Englishmen, Frenchmen, Spaniards; an essay in comparative psychology.
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