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Conclusion There are perhaps few decisions made on behalf of students with visual impairments that are more crucial, yet subject to more confusion and controversy, than the decision regarding an appropriate reading medium.
Making an initial determination of the appropriate reading medium is not a concern for those who have no visual impairment i.
Difficulties may arise, however, in making decisions for those students who are visually impaired but not totally blind. The purpose of this article is to address these difficulties and propose guidelines for appropriate decision making. Few published procedures have been available to teachers and parents for assistance in making decisions concerning selection of a reading medium for students with visual impairments.
Perhaps the lack of attention in the literature addressing this difficult problem has led to a sense of confusion that has fueled the controversy between teaching print reading or teaching braille reading. While common guidelines for such decisions may be used by professionals throughout the country, these have not been thoroughly documented.
In the past, professionals believed that use of vision could impair sight even further Irwin, It was common practice to blindfold, and teach braille reading to all students who were visually impaired and, therefore, "save their sight" for other tasks. The decision to teach braille reading was made without consideration of visual functioning.
Today, best professional practice and federal legislation specify that educational decisions must be made by a multidisciplinary team according to the individual needs and abilities of each student. These decisions must be based on information obtained from systematic procedures.
Such procedures must be used to determine the most appropriate reading medium for each child. This article will focus on students who are entering a developmental reading program, i.
Students with adventitious visual impairments present separate concerns that, while important, will not be considered within the scope of this paper. The early years of a student's life represent a critical period for development of skills that will provide the foundation for all future learning and living.
An essential part of this critical period is the role that professionals and parents have in assuring that a solid foundation is provided for each student. No one can predict the future with absolute certainty.
However, professionals and parents are called upon to make informed decisions as a team in order to assure an appropriate education for each student with a visual impairment; one essential team decision will involve the primary reading medium. Diagnostic teaching in the decision-making process Decisions on the appropriate reading medium cannot be made on the basis of arbitrary information, such as the legal definition of blindness, since students with visual impairments use their vision with differing degrees of efficiency.
The early years of a student's education should be used as a diagnostic teaching phase during which different options for reading and writing can be explored.
The period of reading readiness presents an ideal time for implementation of a diagnostic teaching approach, since readiness activities seek to stimulate all the senses in preparation for formal reading. By using a diagnostic teaching approach to early reading instruction, teachers and parents can collect information about a student's preference for gathering sensory information.
Support for the need for one reading medium or another can be derived from these data. The key element is collecting information that will provide a basis for informed decision making, a process that is undeniably superior to decisions based on arbitrary or superficial information.
Characteristics of diagnostic teaching Diagnostic teaching combines the two essential educational practices of instruction and assessment and may be characterized by the following principles:No whole number can divide a circle exactly arithmetically but some whole numbers can divide a circle exactly geometrically.
This is the first differentiator between geometry and arithmetic. When it comes to dividing a circle's circumference (or area) with a straightedge and compass, we always strive for . Write a program that asks the user to enter the width and length of a rectangle, and then display the rectangle’s area.
The program should call the following methods: • getLength – This method should ask the user to enter the rectangle’s length, and then return that value as a double. To calculate area and perimeter of a square and rectangle in C++ Programming, you have to ask to the user to enter length and breadth of the rectangle and side length of the square and make two variable one for area and one for perimeter for each (square and rectangle), to perform mathematical calculation and display the result on the screen as.
From the Greeks to the Golden Rectangle. Co-authored by Todd Murdock. When it comes to rules of proportion, I never understood the whole picture. At least not until recently, not before spending the last three years studying the classical orders with Todd Murdock—one SketchUp rendition at a time.
Now I know why I had such a hard time understanding the rules of proportion. The length and breadth of a rectangle and radius of a circle are input #through the Keyboard. Write a program to calculate the area and perimeter of the rectangle.
C Program to Calculate Area of Rectangle. I have used CodeBlocks compiler for debugging purpose. But you can use any C programming language compiler as per your availability.