For the serious to be truly serious, there must be the serial, which is made up of elements, of results, of configurations, of homologies, of repetitions. What is serious for Lacan is the logic of the signifier, that is to say the opposite of a philosophy, inasmuch as every philosophy rests on the appropriateness, transparency, agreement, harmony of thought with itself. The unconscious means that thought is caused by the non-thought that one cannot recapture in the present, except by capturing it in its consequences.
Positive psychology brought an emphasis on the importance of using the scientific method to understand normal development, including nurturing talent and genius and studying how each individual can fulfill their potential as a human being.
Another early use of the term was by Otto Casmann Among his numerous works from the field of philosophy, theology, and natural sciences is one that includes the word "psychology" in its title: Psychologia anthropologica printed in Hanau in Filip Melanchton is often cited as having used the term in his lectures about forty years earlier Krstic, This, of course, may well not have been the very first usage, but it is the earliest documented use at present Krstic, The term did not come into popular usage until the German idealist philosopher, Christian Wolff used it in his Psychologia empirica and Psychologia rationalis In Englandthe term "psychology" did not overtake "mental philosophy" until the middle of the nineteenth century, in the work of William Hamilton Danziger Early Psychological Thought Many cultures throughout history have speculated on the nature of the mindsouland spirit.
Though other medical documents of ancient times were full of incantations and applications meant to turn away disease -causing demons and other superstitionthe Edwin Smith Papyrus gives remedies to almost 50 conditions and only one contains incantations to ward off evil.
Ancient Greek philosophers from Thales B. The most influential of these are the accounts of Platoespecially in the Republicand of Aristotleespecially in De Anima.
In Asia, China had a long history of administering psychological tests as part of its education system. In the sixth century C. Indiatoo, had an elaborate theory of the self in its Vedanta philosophical writings Paranjpe During the Islamic Golden Age ninth—thirteenth centuries.
Islamic scholars developed the science of the Nafs Haque Muslim scholarship was strongly influenced by Greek and Indian philosophy as well as by the study of scripture.
In the writings of Muslim scholars, the term Nafs self or soul was used to denote individual personalityand encompassed a broad range of faculties including the qalb heartthe ruh spiritthe aql intellect and irada will. The Iraqi Arab scientist, Ibn al-Haytham Alhacencarried out a number of investigations on visual perceptionincluding sensation, variations in sensitivity, sensation of touchperception of colorsperception of darkness, the psychological explanation of the moon illusionand binocular vision.
In his Book of Optics Alhacen to argued that vision occurs in the brainrather than the eyes. Beginnings of Western psychology Early Western psychology was regarded as the study of the soul in the Christian sense of the term. Franz Anton Mesmer The philosophers of the British Empiricist and Associationist schools had a profound impact on the later course of experimental psychology.
Also influential on the emerging discipline of psychology were debates surrounding the efficacy of Mesmerism hypnosis and the value of phrenology.
The former was developed in the s by Austrian physician Franz Mesmer who claimed to use the power of gravity, and later of "animal magnetism," to cure various physical and mental ills. As Mesmer and his treatment became increasingly fashionable in both Vienna and Parisit also began to come under the scrutiny of suspicious officials.
Franz Joseph Gall Phrenology began as "organology," a theory of brain structure developed by the German physician, Franz Joseph Gall Gall argued that the brain is divided into a large number of functional "organs," each responsible for particular human mental abilities and dispositions—hope, lovespirituality, greed, language, the abilities to detect the size, form, and color of objects, and so forth.
He argued that the larger each of these organs are, the greater the power of the corresponding mental trait. Although Gall had been a serious albeit misguided researcher, his theory was taken by his assistant, Johann Gaspar Spurzheimand developed into the profitable, popular enterprise of phrenology, which soon spawned, especially in Britain, a thriving industry of independent practitioners.
In the hands of Scottish religious leader George Combe phrenology became strongly associated with political reform movements and egalitarian principles. Phrenology soon spread to America as well, where itinerant practical phrenologists assessed the mental well-being of willing customers.
Emergence of German experimental psychology Gustav Fechner In its beginnings psychology was long regarded as a branch of philosophy. Immanuel Kant declared in his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science that a scientific psychology "properly speaking" is impossible.
Although he was unable to render his theory empirically testable, his efforts did lead scientists such as Ernst Heinrich Weber and Gustav Theodor Fechner to try to measure the mathematical relationships between the physical magnitudes of external stimuli and the psychological intensities of the resulting sensations.
Fechner is the originator of the term psychophysics. Meanwhile, individual differences in reaction time had become a critical issue in the field of astronomyunder the name of the "personal equation. One of the principal founders of experimental physiology, Hermann von Helmholtzconducted studies of a wide range of topics that would later be of interest to psychologists—the speed of neural transmission, the natures of sound and color, and of our perception of them, and so on.
In the s, while he held a position in Heidelberg, Helmholtz engaged as an assistant a young doctor named Wilhelm Wundt.
Wundt employed the equipment of the physiology laboratory to address more complicated psychological questions than had until then been considered experimentally. In particular he was interested in the nature of apperception—the point at which a perception comes into the central focus of conscious awareness.
Moving to a more prestigious professorship in Leipzig inWundt founded a laboratory specifically dedicated to original research in experimental psychology inthe first laboratory of its kind in the world.
Wundt attracted a large number of students not only from Germany but also from abroad.New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.
Cognitive Psychology - Cognitive psychology began around 19th century. Different approaches have been used to trace the roots of psychology. Academy of Social Sciences ASS The United Kingdom Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences formed in gave rise to the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences incorporated , which became the Academy of Social Sciences on ASS Commission on the Social Sciences Notes from the meeting on by Ron Johnston.
In social psychology, individual difference research aims to find out why individuals act differently in the same scenarios (Butt, ). Th. Writing a psychology case study can seem to be an onerous task. Not only do you have to worry about the quality of your writing, but also the various sources, types, diagnosis and theoretical approaches .
Published: Mon, 5 Dec In social psychology, individual difference research aims to find out why individuals act differently in the same scenarios (Butt, ).