Overview[ edit ] In applying statistics to a problem, it is common practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all persons living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population an operation called census. This may be organized by governmental statistical institutes.
Introduction The first section in the body is the introduction. Every introduction will have the following roughly in this order: The entire section should be in paragraph form with the possible exception of the hypotheses, which may be indented.
Methods The next section of the paper has four subsections: Sample; Measures; Design; and, Procedure. Each of the four subsections should have an underlined left justified section heading. Sampling This section should describe the population of interest, the sampling frame, the method for selecting the sample, and the sample itself.
A brief discussion of external validity is appropriate here, that is, you should state the degree to which you believe results will be generalizable from your sample to the population.
Link to Knowledge Base on sampling. Measures This section should include a brief description of your constructs and all measures that will be used to operationalize them. You may present short instruments in their entirety in this section.
If you have more lengthy instruments you may present some "typical" questions to give the reader a sense of what you will be doing and include the full measure in an Appendix. You may include any instruments in full in appendices rather than in the body.
Appendices should be labeled by letter. For pre-existing instruments you should cite any relevant information about reliability and validity if it is available. For all instruments, you should briefly state how you will determine reliability and validity, report the results and discuss.
For reliability, you must describe the methods you used and report results. A brief discussion of how you have addressed construct validity is essential. In general, you should try to demonstrate both convergent and discriminant validity. You must discuss the evidence in support of the validity of your measures.
Link to Knowledge Base on measurement. Design You should state the name of the design that is used and tell whether it is a true or quasi-experiment, nonequivalent group design, and so on. You should also present the design structure in X and O notation this should be indented and centered, not put into a sentence.
You should also include a discussion of internal validity that describes the major likely threats in your study and how the design accounts for them, if at all. Link to Knowledge Base on design. Procedures Generally, this section ties together the sampling, measurement, and research design.
In this section you should briefly describe the overall plan of the research, the sequence of events from beginning to end including sampling, measurement, and use of groups in designshow participants will be notified, and how their confidentiality will be protected where relevant.
An essential part of this subsection is a description of the program or independent variable that you are studying.
Link to Knowledge Base discussion of validity.
Results The heading for this section is centered with upper and lower case letters. You should indicate concisely what results you found in this research. In fact, the common experience in social research is the finding of no effect.
Conclusions Here you should describe the conclusions you reach assuming you got the results described in the Results section above. You should relate these conclusions back to the level of the construct and the general problem area which you described in the Introduction section.
You should also discuss the overall strength of the research proposed e. References There are really two parts to a reference citation. First, there is the way you cite the item in the text when you are discussing it.
Second, there is the way you list the complete reference in the reference section in the back of the report. Reference Citations in the Text of Your Paper Cited references appear in the text of your paper and are a way of giving credit to the source of the information or quote you have used in your paper.
They generally consist of the following bits of information: If there are six or more authors, the first author is listed followed by the term, et al. Year of publication in parenthesis.Essay: The Cognitive Style of Powerpoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within In corporate and government bureaucracies, the standard method for making a presentation is to talk about a list of points organized onto slides projected up on the wall.
Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
For more information, please consult the Publication . Edmund Phelps, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, is Director of the Center on Capitalism and Society at Columbia University. Born in , he spent his childhood in Chicago and, from age six, grew up in Hastings-on Hudson, N.Y.
He attended public schools, earned his B.A. from Amherst. Overview. The instructions provided here are for a research article or a research report (generally these guidelines follow the formatting guidelines of the American Psychological Association documented in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 4th Edition).Please consult the specific guidelines that are required by the publisher for the type of document you are producing.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with data collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation. In applying statistics to, for example, a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied.
Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or.
The Eminent Ecologist Award is given to a senior ecologist in recognition of an outstanding body of ecological work or of sustained ecological contributions of extraordinary merit.