Facade and choirnave from onwards The pointed arch originated in the Byzantine and Sassanian empires, where it mostly appears in early Christian church buildingsalthough engineering works such as the Byzantine Karamagara Bridge also showed it fully developed at an early stage. It is not very likely that a direct impact of one on the other can be demonstrated, and we are certainly dealing with parallel growth.
Europe and the Islamic lands had multiple points of contact during the Middle Ages. The main points of transmission of Islamic knowledge to Europe lay in Sicily and in Spainparticularly in Toledo with Gerard of Cremone—, following the conquest of the city by Spanish Christians in In Sicily, following the Islamic conquest of the island in and its reconquest by the Normans ina syncretistic Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture developed, exemplified by rulers such as King Roger IIwho had Islamic soldiers, poets and scientists at his court.
In the Levant, in such cities as AntiochArab and Latin cultures intermixed intensively. Notable examples include Leonardo Fibonacci c. From the 11th to the 14th centuries, numerous European students attended Muslim centers of higher learning which the author calls "universities" to study medicinephilosophymathematicscosmography and other subjects.
In the Middle Eastmany classical Greek textsespecially the works of Aristotlewere translated into Syriac during the 6th and 7th centuries by NestorianMelkite or Jacobite monks living in Palestineor by Greek exiles from Athens or Edessa who visited Islamic centres of higher learning.
The Islamic world then kept, translated, and developed many of these texts, especially in centers of learning such as Baghdadwhere a " House of Wisdom " with thousands of manuscripts existed as early as These texts were in turn translated into Latin by scholars such as Michael Scot who made translations of Historia Animalium and On the Soul as well as of Averroes's commentaries  during the Middle Ages.
Later Latin translations of these texts originated in multiple places. Toledo, Spain with Gerard of Cremona 's Almagest and Sicily became the main points of transmission of knowledge from the Islamic world to Europe.
The Jewish philosopher Moses MaimonidesMuslim sociologist-historian Ibn KhaldunCarthage citizen Constantine the African who translated Greek medical texts, and Al-Khwarizmi's collation of mathematical techniques were important figures of the Golden Age.
Averroes was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe. Avicenna was an important commentator on the works of Aristotlemodifying it with his own original thinking in some areas, notably logic. This was particularly the case in Pariswhere so-called Arabic culture was proscribed inthough the influence of his psychology and theory of knowledge upon William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnus have been noted.
Dante Aligheri argues along Averroist lines for a secularist theory of the state in De Monarchia. Monfredo de Monte Imperiali Liber de herbis, 14th century.
He notes that dictation was a necessary part of Arabic scholarship where the vowel sounds need to be added correctly based on the spoken wordand argues that the medieval Italian use of the term "ars dictaminis" makes best sense in this context. He also believes that the medieval humanist favouring of classical Latin over medieval Latin makes most sense in the context of a reaction to Arabic scholarship, with its study of the classical Arabic of the Koran in preference to medieval Arabic.
Latin translations of the 12th century and Science in the medieval Islamic world A page from Frederick Rosen's edition of Al-Khwarizmi 's Algebra alongside the corresponding English translation. During the Islamic Golden Age, certain advances were made in scientific fields, notably in mathematics and astronomy algebraspherical trigonometryand in chemistryetc.
The method of algorism for performing arithmetic with Indian-Arabic numerals was developed by the Persian al-Khwarizmi in the 9th century, and introduced in Europe by Leonardo Fibonacci — Ibn al-Haytham Alhazen, — compiled treatises on optical sciences, which were used as references by Newton and Descartes.
Medical sciences were also highly developed in Islam as testified by the Crusaders, who relied on Arab doctors on numerous occasions. These scholars were interested in ancient Greek philosophical and scientific texts notably the Almagest which were not obtainable in Latin in Western Europe, but which had survived and been translated into Arabic in the Muslim world.
Gerard was said to have made his way to Toledo in Spain and learnt Arabic specifically because of his "love of the Almagest". While there he took advantage of the "abundance of books in Arabic on every subject". These scholars translated many scientific and philosophical texts from Arabic into Latin.Islamic art was widely imported and admired by European elites during the Middle Ages.
There was an early formative stage from and the development of regional styles from onwards. Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe Jump to navigation Jump to search.
A The Islamic world also influenced other aspects of medieval European culture, partly by original innovations made during the Islamic Golden . The Islamic Culture's Long-term Impact on Medieval Western Society Resulted in the Scientific Revolution and the European Renaissance.
Western society, past & present will forever be in debt to Islamic culture. Economy. Connected the trades of Africa, Asia and Europe. How has Islam influenced the world?
Update Cancel. Answer Wiki. 8 Answers. the traditional view of Western historians is that European culture is the direct descendant of the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome. "Scientific methodology" which Islamic civilization has suggested is the principles and methods which we have used now.
History of Europe - European society and culture since “If it works, it’s obsolete.” First reported in or about , the saying neatly expressed that period’s sense of the headlong speed at which technology was changing.
But equally rapid change is the hallmark of many aspects of life since , and nowhere has it been more apparent . Because Islam originated and has developed in an Arab culture, other cultures which have adopted Islam have tended to be influenced by Arab customs.
Thus Arab Muslim societies and other Muslims have cultural affinities, though every society has preserved its distinguishing characteristics. Islamic culture inherited an Arab culture born in the .